The Italian Renaissance

T
HE
I
TALIAN
R
ENAISSANCE

For Maria Lúcia

P
ETER
B
URKE

T
HE
I
TALIAN
R
ENAISSANCE
Culture and Society in Italy

Third Edition

polity

Copyright © Peter Burke 1986, 1999, 2014
First edition 1972 by Batsford, UK. Scribner, US. Paperback edition published by Collins Fontana 1974. Revised edition first published 1987 by Polity Press in association with Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Reprinted in 1988, 1991, 1993, 1994
Revised second edition first published 1999.
Reprinted in 2000, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2010.
This revised third edition first published 2014.
Polity Press
65 Bridge Street
Cambridge CB2 1UR, UK
All rights reserved. Except for the quotation of short passages for the purposes of criticism and review, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher.
Except in the United States of America, this book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.
ISBN 978-0-7456-7967-9
A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Image nos. 1–5, 8, 11–12, 16–22, 24–6, 29–32, 34–6 Wikimedia Commons; 6–7 by permission of Cambridge University Library; 9, Musei Vaticani; 10, Fabbrica di San Pietro in Vaticano; 13, Photgraph by James Austin; 14, St Bernard preaching, by Francesco di Giorgio e di Lorenzo known as the Elder (Vecchietta) (ca 1412–1480), Detail / De Agostini Picture Library / The Bridgeman Art Library; 15, Galleria Estense, Modena; 23, Musee Jacquemart-Andre, Paris (Photographie Bulloz); 27, Two studies of a man suspended by his left leg (red chalk on cream paper), Sarto, Andrea del (1486–1530) / Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, UK / © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth / Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees / The Bridgeman Art Library; 28 & 33, Getty Images.
For more information about polity please go to our website,
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C
ONTENTS

Illustrations
I
NTRODUCTION
The Theme
The Approach
A Revised Edition
P
ART  I THE
P
ROBLEM
1  T
HE
A
RTS IN
R
ENAISSANCE
I
TALY
2  T
HE
H
ISTORIANS: THE
D
ISCOVERY OF
S
OCIAL AND
C
ULTURAL
H
ISTORY
P
ART II  THE
A
RTS IN
T
HEIR
M
ILIEU
3  A
RTISTS AND
W
RITERS
Recruitment
Training
The Organization of the Arts
The Status of the Arts
Artists as Social Deviants
4  P
ATRONS AND
C
LIENTS
Who are the Patrons?
Patrons v
.
Artists
Architecture, Music and Literature
The Rise of the Market
5  T
HE
U
SES OF
W
ORKS OF
A
RT
Magic and Religion
Politics
The Private Sphere
Art for Pleasure
6  T
ASTE
The Visual Arts
Music
Literature
Varieties of Taste
7  I
CONOGRAPHY
P
ART III  THE
W
IDER
S
OCIETY
8  W
ORLDVIEWS:
S
OME
D
OMINANT
T
RAITS
Views of the Cosmos
Views of Society
Views of Man
Towards the Mechanization of the World Picture
9  T
HE
S
OCIAL
F
RAMEWORK
Religious Organization
Political Organization
The Social Structure
The Economy
10  C
ULTURAL AND
S
OCIAL
C
HANGE
Generations
Structural Changes
11  C
OMPARISONS AND
C
ONCLUSIONS
The Netherlands
Japan
A
PPENDIX: THE
C
REATIVE
E
LITE
R
EFERENCES AND
B
IBLIOGRAPHY
I
NDEX
Illustrations

1.1  Carlo Crivelli:
The Annunciation with Saint Emidius
, 1486
1.2  Domenico Ghirlandaio:
Adoration of the Shepherds
, Santa Trinità, Florence
1.3  The Colleoni Chapel in Bergamo
2.1  Gentile da Fabriano:
Adoration of the Shepherds
(detail), Galleria Uffizi, Florence
3.1  A bust of Filippo Brunelleschi, Florence Cathedral
3.2  The training of a humanist at university, from C. Landino:
Formulario di lettere e di orationi volgari con la preposta
, Florence
3.3  Woodcut of Adriaan Willaert, from
Musica Nova
, 1559
3.4  Agostino Veneziano’s engraving of Baccio Bandinelli’s ‘Academy’ in Rome
3.5  Giovanni de Udine: Stucco relief showing Raphael’s workshop (detail), in the Vatican Loggia
3.6  The architect Filarete leading his apprentices, from the doors of St Peter’s, Rome
3.7  Titian:
Portrait of Giulio Romano
3.8  Palma Vecchio:
Portrait of a Poet
3.9  Giulio Romano: The Palazzo del Te, Mantua, detail of a frieze with slipped triglyphs
4.1  Lorenzo Vecchietta:
San Bernadino da Siena
(detail)
4.2  Battista Dossi:
Madonna with Saints and the Confraternity
4.3  Andrea del Castagno:
The Youthful David
, tempera on leather mounted on wood,
c
.1450
4.4  Leonardo da Vinci:
Isabella d’Este
4.5  Agnolo Bronzino:
Ugolino Martelli
4.6  Pietro Perugino:
Battle of Love and Chastity
4.7  Raphael:
Leo X
4.8  Titian:
Pietro Aretino
5.1  Sandro Botticelli:
The Punishment of Korah, Dathan and Abiron
, Sistine Chapel, Vatican
5.2  School of Piero della Francesca:
Portrait of Alfonso of Aragon
5.3  Donatello:
Judith and Holofernes
5.4  Benvenuto Cellini:
Cosimo I de’Medici
5.5  Massaccio:
The Tribute Money
(detail)
5.6  Andrea del Sarto:
Two Men Suspended by their Feet
(detail), red chalk on cream paper
5.7  Vittore Carpaccio:
The Reception of the English Ambassadors and St Ursula Talking to her Father
6.1  Interior of the Pazzi Chapel in Florence
6.2  Raphael:
Marriage of the Virgin
6.3  The interior of San Francesco della Vigna, Venice
7.1  Leonardo da Vinci:
The Virgin, Child and Saint Anne
7.2  Giorgio Vasari:
Portrait of Lorenzo de’Medici
8.1  Dosso Dossi:
Circe
8.2  Pinturicchio:
Self-Portrait
(detail from
The Annunciation
)
I
NTRODUCTION

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