Read Kingdom Online

Authors: Robyn Young

Kingdom (71 page)

DIRK
: Scots for dagger.

FALCHION
: a short sword with a curved edge.

FOSSE
: a ditch or moat.

GAMBESON
: a padded coat worn by soldiers, often made of quilted cloth, stuffed with felt or straw.

GEOFFREY OF MONMOUTH
: thought to have been a Welshman or Breton by birth, Monmouth resided in Oxford during the twelfth century, where he was possibly a canon of St George’s College. Later, he became Bishop of St Asaph. He wrote three known works during his life, the most famous being
The History of the Kings of Britain
of which the
Prophecies of Merlin
became part, followed by
The
Life of Merlin
. Despite mixing established British history with romantic fiction, Monmouth presented his writings as fact and many readers of his works took them as such, accepting King Arthur and Merlin as historical figures. Monmouth’s works, although criticised by some of his contemporaries, were hugely popular during the medieval period and from his
The History of the Kings of Britain
sprang the immense canon of Arthurian literature that graced Europe over the following centuries. Chrétien de Troyes, Malory, Shakespeare and Tennyson were all influenced by his work.

HAUBERK
: a shirt or coat of mail with long sleeves.

HUKE
: a hooded cloak.

MAGNATE
: a high-ranking noble.

MOTTE
: a castle or keep built on a mound, often surrounded by a bailey.

PALFREY
: a light horse used for everyday riding.

PROPHECIES OF MERLIN
: written by Geoffrey of Monmouth during the twelfth century. Originally composed as a separate volume, the
Prophecies
were later incorporated into his
The
History of the Kings of Britain
. According to Monmouth he was translating the work into Latin from an older text. Monmouth has been credited as being the creator of Merlin, but it is now believed he derived this enigmatic figure from earlier Welsh sources.

QUARREL
: an arrow for a crossbow.

SCHILTROM
: a shield ring usually composed of spearmen.

STAFF OF MALACHY
: also known as the Staff of Jesus, it was a wooden crosier covered with gold. It was believed to have belonged to St Patrick, who is said to have received it from Jesus. Highly revered by the Irish, it became connected with Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, when he was forced to pay off the leader of the secular clan who had possession of the staff and control of St Patrick’s Cathedral and its diocese. According to popular law, only when Malachy had the staff could he claim to be the rightful archbishop. The staff was taken to Dublin in the late twelfth century, where it was burned as a superstitious relic in the sixteenth century.

STONE OF DESTINY
: also called the Stone of Scone, it was the ancient seat used in Scottish coronations. Thought to have been brought to Scone in the ninth century by Scotland’s king, Kenneth mac Alpin, its origins are unknown. It was seized by Edward I during the 1296 invasion and taken to Westminster Abbey where it was set in a specially designed throne and became part of the English coronation ceremony. It remained here until 1950 when four students stole it and returned it to Scotland. It was later sent back to England, before being officially presented to Edinburgh Castle in 1996, where it remains on display. It will be returned to Westminster for future coronations.

SURCOAT
: a long sleeveless garment usually worn over armour.

VAMBRACE
: armour for the lower arm.

VASSAL
: a retainer subject to a feudal superior, who holds land in return for homage and services.

VENTAIL
: a flap of mail that can be pulled up and secured to protect the lower half of the face during combat.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Armstrong, Pete,
Bannockburn 1314, Robert Bruce’s Great Victory
, Osprey, 2002

Baker, Timothy,
Medieval London
, Cassell, 1970

Barbour, John,
The Bruce
(trans. A.A.M. Duncan), Canongate Classics, 1997

Barrell, A.D.M.,
Medieval Scotland
, Cambridge University Press, 2000

Barrow, G.W.S.,
Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland
, Edinburgh University Press, 1988

Barrow, G.W.S.,
The Kingdom of the Scots
, Edinburgh University Press, 2003

Beam, Amanda,
The Balliol Dynasty 1210–1364
, John Donald, 2008

Branigan, Keith,
Ancient Barra, Exploring the Archaeology of the Outer Hebrides
, Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, 2007

Brown, James,
Carrick, Scotland, Beyond the Tourist Guides
, Carrick Community Councils’ Forum, 2009

Cannan, Fergus,
Galloglass 1250–1600
, Osprey, 2010

Chancellor, John,
The Life and Times of Edward I
, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1981

Clairvaux, St. Bernard of,
Life of St. Malachy of Armagh
(trans. H.J. Lawlor), Dodo Press, 1920

Cornell, David,
Bannockburn, the Triumph of Robert the Bruce
, Yale University Press, 2009

Cowan, Edward J.,
For Freedom Alone: The Declaration of Arbroath, 1320
, Birlinn, 2008

Cowan, Edward J. and Henderson, Lizanne (eds.),
A History of Everyday Life in Medieval Scotland, 1000–1600
, Edinburgh University Press, 2011

Cummins, John,
The Hound and the Hawk, the Art of Medieval Hunting
, Phoenix Press, 2001

Daniell, Christopher,
Death and Burial in Medieval England 1066–1550
, Routledge, 1997

Davis, I.M.,
The Black Douglas
, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974

Dean, Gareth,
Medieval York
, History Press, 2008

Duffy, Seán,
Ireland in the Middle Ages
, Macmillan Press, 1997

Edge, David and Paddock, John M.,
Arms and Armour of the Medieval Knight
, Bison Group, 1988

Fawcett, Richard,
Stirling Castle (Official Guide)
, Historic Scotland, 1999

Frame, Robin,
Ireland and Britain 1170–1450
, Hambledon Press, 1998

France, John,
Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades 1000–1300
, UCL Press, 1999

Given-Wilson, Chris, Kettle, Ann and Scales, Len (eds.),
War, Government and Aristocracy in the British Isles c.1150–1500
, Boydell Press, 2008

Gravett, Christopher,
Knights at Tournament
, Osprey Publishing, 1988

Gravett, Christopher,
English Medieval Knight 1300–1400
, Osprey Publishing, 2002

Grove, Doreen and Yeoman, Peter,
Caerlaverock Castle (Official Guide)
, Historic Scotland, 2006

Haines, Roy Martin,
King Edward II, His Life His Reign and its Aftermath 1284–1330
, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003

Houston, Mary G.,
Medieval Costume in England and France
, Dover Publications, 1996

Hyland, Ann,
The Horse in the Middle Ages
, Sutton Publishing, 1999

Impey, Edward and Parnell, Geoffrey,
The Tower of London (Official Illustrated History)
, Merrell, 2006

Kieckhefer, Richard,
Magic in the Middle Ages
, Cambridge University Press, 2000

Leyser, Henrietta,
Medieval Women, a Social History of Women in England 450–1500
, Phoenix, 1996

Lindsay, Maurice,
The Castles of Scotland
, Constable, 1995

Lynch, Michael,
Scotland, a New History
, Pimlico, 1991

McDonald, Andrew R.,
The Kingdom of the Isles, Scotland’s Western Seaboard c.1100–c.1336
, Tuckwell Press, 1997

McNair Scott, Ronald,
Robert the Bruce, King of Scots
, Canongate, 1988

McNamee, Colm,
Robert Bruce, Our Most Valiant Prince, King and Lord
, Birlinn, 2006

Moffat, Alistair,
The Sea Kingdoms, the History of Celtic Britain and Ireland
, Birlinn, 2011

Monmouth, Geoffrey of,
The
History of the Kings of Britain
(trans. Lewis Thorpe), Penguin Classics, 1966

Monmouth, Geoffrey of,
The Vita Merlini
(trans. John Jay Parry), BiblioBazaar, 2008

Morris, J.E.,
The Welsh Wars of Edward I
, Sutton Publishing, 1998

Morris, Marc,
A Great and Terrible King, Edward I and the Forging of Britain
, Hutchinson, 2008

Nicolle, David,
The History of Medieval Life
, Chancellor Press, 2000

Oram, Richard,
The Kings and Queens of Scotland
, Tempus, 2004

Reese, Peter,
Bannockburn, Scotland’s Greatest Victory
, Canongate, 2000

Rixson, Denis,
The West Highland Galley
, Birlinn, 1998

Rixson, Denis,
The Small Isles, Canna, Rum, Eigg and Muck
, Birlinn, 2011

Spufford, Peter,
Power and Profit, the Merchant in Medieval Europe
, Thames and Hudson, 2002

Tabraham, Chris,
Scotland’s Castles
, Historic Scotland, B.T. Batsford, 2005

Tabraham, Chris (ed.),
Edinburgh Castle (Official Guide)
, Historic Scotland, 2003

Talbot, C.H.,
Medicine in Medieval England
, Oldbourne, 1967

Watson, Fiona,
Under the Hammer, Edward I & Scotland 1286–1307
, Tuckwell Press, 1998

Weir, Alison,
Isabella, She-Wolf of France, Queen of England
, Pimlico, 2006

Wilkinson, James and Knighton, C.S.,
Crown and Cloister, the Royal Story of Westminster Abbey
, Scala, 2010

Williams, Ronald,
The Lords of the Isles, the Clan Donald and the Early Kingdom of the Scots
, House of Lochar, 2000

Yeoman, Peter,
Medieval Scotland
, Historic Scotland, B.T. Batsford, 1995

Young, Alan,
Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212–1314
, Tuckwell Press, 1997

Zacour, Norman,
An Introduction to Medieval Institutions
, St James Press, 1977

 

 

Excerpts used as epigraphs on part titles taken from:

The Vita Merlini
, Geoffrey of Monmouth (trans. John Jay Parry), BiblioBazaar, 2008

The British History of Geoffrey of Monmouth
(trans. A. Thompson, revised edn J. A. Giles), William Stevens (printer), London, 1842

Other books

Demon Forged by Meljean Brook
Sealed in Sin by Juliette Cross
Evergreen by Belva Plain
From Venice With Love by Alison Roberts
Beneath the Elder Tree by Hazel Black
The Ring of Five by Eoin McNamee
My Prize by Sahara Kelly
Love by Proxy by Diana Palmer